(Local short form: Mongol Ulus, formerly known as Mongolian Peoples Republic and until 1924 was called Outer Mongolia).
Ulaanbaatar (means Red Hero), population 1,050,000 people (2010). Situated on the Tuul River. From 1639-1706 was known as Urga or Da Khuree.
604,826 square miles (1,566,00 square km) Area comparison: Four times the size of U.K., Three times the size of France, or about the size of western Europe. Mongolia is the world’s largest landlocked nation and is the 18th largest country in the world.
Northern Asia, situated between the People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation.
2.8 million (2006) More than half the population is under age 30.
4.7 persons per square mile (1.7 persons per square km) Approximately 65% of Mongolians live in urban centers, 35% are pastoral nomads.
Khalkh Mongolian (90%), Turkic, Russian. Cyrillic script is used in writing. Literacy Rate: 98.4% Religions: Mahayana Tibetan Buddhism (96%), Shamanism,
Parliamentary Democracy Mongolia has 21 Aimags (provinces) which are divided into 343 Sums (districts) and smaller sub-districts known as Baags.
Extreme Continental (large daily and seasonal temperature changes) Summer averages +68F degrees. Winter averages 13F degrees. Winter season runs from October till April. Annually Mongolia has more than 260 sunny days on average.
Average Elevation: More than 5,180 feet (1,580 meters) Average altitude in Mongolia is one mile above sea level. Major Rivers & Lakes: The Orkhon River is the longest river in Mongolia at 698 miles (1124 km).
Lake Hovsgol Nuur is Mongolia’s largest lake and holds 2% of the world’s freshwater supply.
Desert steppe, Desert plains,
Grassy steppe terrain is found in most parts of Eastern Mongolia,
Mountainous zone covers 5% of Mongolia’s territory, Mountain forest, Taiga forest region in the north is 5% of Mongolia’s total landmass.
The Gobi Desert is the world’s northernmost desert and has a mostly gravel surface with low-lying rocky hills. One of the earth’s great deserts it ranges through most of southern Mongolia and comprises 17% of Mongolia’s total landmass. Annually desertification in the Gobi Desert area is increasing due to overgrazing primarily.
Altai Nuruu Mountains ranging northwest to southeast,
Khentii Nuruu Mountains in the northeast and
Khangai Nuruu Mountains in Central Mongolia. Highest peak: Khuiten Peak14,350 feet (4374 meters) in the Altai Tavanbogd Uul range.
Tцgrцg (Tughruk), U.S. $1 = Tg1165 (January, 2007)
Copper, Textiles, Cashmere and cashmere products, Fluorspar, Wool, Livestock and livestock products.
New Years Day - January 1st, Tsagaan Tsar (Lunar New Year) Usually early February depending on phases of the moon, International Woman’s Day March 8th, Mothers and Children’s Day - June 1st, Naadam (National Games) July 11th - 13th, Independence Day November 26th.
Mongolia is a country imbued with the glimmer of a legendary past of epic proportions and a place full of immense possibilities today. Modern day Mongolia is a nation building a new place for itself in a world transformed by technology, global economics, large political changes and rapid regional development. Despite massive industrial and technological development in nearby countries, Mongolia is maintaining much of its ancient traditional culture while steadily adapting to an enormously changed world. Once famous mainly for being the launch point of the colossal Mongol Empire and its founder Chinggis Khan, Mongolia is going through yet another remarkable transformation. Modern Mongolia is now viewed by many as a prime destination for adventure-travel, natural resources development and new business and investment opportunities. In Mongolia foreign travelers often witness the ancient ways of Mongolia’s nomadic culture balanced between progressive perspectives and older deep-rooted traditions. With a wealth of undeveloped territory and a proportionately small population, Mongolians are in a good position to reap the benefits from their country’s great potential. While the country is still finding its way through the difficult transition from a socialist system to a market economy, there have been significant indications of positive economic progress for Mongolia as a whole. Mongolia’s GDP has risen steadily for the last few years and inflation which was high in the 1990’s has declined. Along with economic growth there has also been a reduction in social services that were available to Mongolians during Mongolia’s socialist era when financial aid was given to Mongolia by the Soviet . Changes bought about by Mongolia’s privatization process, industrial development and cutbacks in social support systems have caused hardships for many Mongolians who were dependent on government assistance for support. It remains to be seen if the growing gap between those in need of aid and wealthier Mongolians will be addressed with the assistance of social support programs. Commercial ventures such as mining, lumbering and large-scale hunting operations are having a negative impact on Mongolia’s relatively pristine environment and wildlife. Industrial development and commercial hunting have taken a toll on the country’s environment due to insufficient monitoring of regulations that could prevent environmental over-exploitation. Recent revelations about the decline of forest cover and wildlife have compelled the government to pass new regulations to ensure better protection for Mongolia’s environment and wildlife. Mongolians generally have a strong sense of connection with the unspoiled vast open spaces of their homeland and wish to protect their environmental and cultural heritage. Time will tell if Mongolia will be able to develop its economy and industries without expending too great a price environmentally. It is hoped by many Mongolians that this current situation is just a necessary phase of economic growth that all developing nations undergo, and will improve over time. Some positive recent developments have made the government’s social support networks steadily more efficient. There has been a steady rise in government workers salaries, which had been outpaced by inflation earlier. Mongolia will most likely continue to face the challenges of many other emerging countries that have had to struggle to find an acceptable balance between making sacrifices for the sake of development and yet safeguarding its cultural and social heritage.
Mongolia’s capital city Ulaan Baatar, has its share of cosmopolitan amenities like internet cafes, department stores, supermarkets, art galleries, nightclubs, all-night kiosks and fancy hotels.
During Mongolia’s national celebration of traditional sports called ‘Naadam’ held each July, all work activities come to a halt as Mongolians focus on the
horseracing competitions. These traditional sporting competitions are a reminder of the cultural importance and esteem in which these ancient skills are still held by Mongolians. Just a few miles away from the streets of Mongolia’s urban centers are the horses and livestock of traditional pastoral nomads living a life mostly unchanged for centuries. Many Mongolian business tycoons, politicians and urban dwellers still take time in the summer months to relax by living in the countryside with their relatives in the traditional portable round nomad homes called ‘Gers’. The fortitude needed to survive artic cold in a felt lined ‘Ger’ and the graciousness required to welcome all visitors to the nomad’s home are essential foundations of Mongolian society and an integral part of the Mongolian peoples character. Despite great personal hardships including extreme weather conditions and limited financial resources more than a third of all Mongolians make their living raising livestock. Riding hardy Mongolian horses and moving their ‘Gers’ from one pasture to the next, the nomadic culture of Mongolia is probably the last of its kind still surviving in Asia. The future of Mongolia’s nomadic lifestyle though is precarious due to recent land privatization, pasture depletion, disastrously severe winters, and large-scale rural population migration to cities. If pastoral-nomadism were to die out in Mongolia as some have predicted, then it could begin the decline of a deep level of personal involvement many Mongolians still have with their land. It is also possible that Mongolians will not allow economic development to jeopardize their homeland’s environment and traditional culture, which are an inspirational symbol of self-reliance and independence for Mongolians.
Mongolia Country Information Links
Wikipedia - Mongolia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongolia
Country Reports Mongolia - http://www.countryreports.org/history/pakishist.htm
Mongolia Map - http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/mongolia_rel96.jpg
Ministry of Road, Transport & Tourism Mongolia Info - http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/
Library of Congress Country Studies - Mongolia - http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/mntoc.html
Website of Government Organizations of Mongolia - http://www.pmis.gov.mn/
Mongolia Frequent Asked Questions - http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~corff/mf.html
Mongolia Maps - http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/mongolia.html
Current Time in Mongolia - http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx
Mongolia Current Weather - http://www.wunderground.com/global/MO.html
Mongolian Tugrug (Currency) - http://www.gocurrency.com/countries/mongolia.htm
Virtual Mongol - http://www.kiku.com/electric_samurai/virtual_mongol/index.html
Mongolia Online - http://www.mol.mn/
Lonely Planet Worldguide Mongolia - http://www.lonelyplanet.com/worldguide/destinations/asia/mongolia/
Information About Trekking & Cycling in Mongolia - http://www.mountainbike-expedition-team.de/Mongolia/mongo_info.html
Asian Studies Mongolian Geography - http://www.asia.msu.edu/eastasia/Mongolia/geography.html
Infoplease Mongolia - http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107796.html
BBC News Mongolia - http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1235560.stm
Embassy of Mongolia Washington D.C. - http://www.mongolianembassy.us/
Mongolian Embassy in Canada - http://www.mongolembassy.org/
Permanent Mission of Mongolia to the U.N. - http://www.un.int/mongolia/
Eurasianet Mongolia - http://www.eurasianet.org/resource/mongolia/index.shtml
The Parliament of Mongolia - http://www.parl.gov.mn/
Constitution of Mongolia - http://www.law.nyu.edu/centralbankscenter/texts/Mongolia-Constitution.html
Government of Mongolia Website - http://www.pmis.gov.mn/
Ethnalogue Report for Mongolia - http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=MN
GSM Mongolia - http://www.gsmworld.com/roaming/gsminfo/cou_mn.shtml
Mongolia Constitution - http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/mg00000_.html
Mongolian Flag - http://www.geographic.org/flags/mongolia_flags.html
Mongolian Flags - http://flagspot.net/flags/mn.html
Lingua Mongolia - http://www.linguamongolia.co.uk/
UNESCO Mongolia World Heritage Sites - http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/mn
Mongolian National Statistical Office - http://www.nso.mn/eng/index.php
Mongolia Web News Mongolia Statistics -http://www.mongolia-web.com/content/view/313/39/
Mongolia Data & Statistics - http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/MONGOLIAEXTN/0,,menuPK:327734~pagePK:141132~piPK:141109~theSitePK:327708,00.html
Mongolia Statistics for Livestock - http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Counprof/mongol1.htm
Mongolia and the IMF Statistics - http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.cfm?sk=3450
MongolUls - Mongolia and Introduction - http://mongoluls.net/mongolia.shtml
BBC Mongolian History Timeline - http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1235612.stm
Mongolia City Population Cities, Towns & Provinces - http://www.citypopulation.de/Mongolia.html
Information about Libraries in Mongolia - http://www.mongoliacenter.org/libinfo.htm
Mongolia Finance and Banks-http://www.financewise.com/public/edit/asia/mongolia/mongolia-links.html
Banking Laws of Mongolia - http://www.indiana.edu/~mongsoc/mong/banklaw.html
Pastoral Nomadism by Edward Vajda - http://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/ea210/pastoralism.htm
IUCN Global Review of Economics of Pastoralism - http://www.iucn.org/wisp/documents_english/global_review_ofthe_economicsof_pastoralism_en.pdf
World Bank Mongolia Environment Information - http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/EXTEAPREGTOPENVIRONMENT/0,,contentMDK:20266325~menuPK:537827~pagePK:34004173~piPK:34003707~theSitePK:502886,00.html
Main page: www.Mongolianculture.com
/Some Mongolia text information was compiled from the web of IMS of New York/.